National Academy of Sciences Weighs In On Genetically-Engineered Foods

Genetically_engineered_NAS_CliffThe National Academy of Sciences has some conclusions to share about genetically-engineered foods — 420 pages worth. And no matter which side of the fence you stand on when it comes to this divisive topic, you probably aren’t going to like what the nonprofit has to say.

The report, Genetically Engineered Organisms: Experiences and Prospects, was released last week online amid a flurry of news articles that attempted to breathlessly summarize the findings in a few short sentences. Some expressed disappointment in the authors’ inconclusive findings; many others attempted to pin a final yea-or-nay viewpoint on the Academy’s nine-chapter investigation.

But it seems reasonable to assume, with a title that takes neither side captive, that wasn’t the intent of the Academy’s report.

Too often, scientific analysis gets boiled down to a for-or-against summary. And no subject more exemplifies that fallacy, says the Academy, than the GMO debate. Determining whether herbicide resistant (HR) crops have a place in the production of the world’s major food sources — and whether science can actually increase yields by modifying the way that insects respond to the crop and reducing the growth of weeds — deserves a balanced answer that is based on clinical results, the authors said.

But avoiding simple conclusions, it would seem, is harder than it looks. In the report’s chapter on agronomic effects of genetically-engineered (GE) crops, the authors pointed out that after over 20 years of genetic engineering, scientists still aren’t really sure whether HR technology actually helps reduce the amount of herbicide that is needed in a farmer’s field. Results from previous studies varied from year to year, the authors determined, and researchers zeroed-in on that point when they published their conclusions.

Rather than conclude that the earlier data suggested GE technology might not be as helpful as proponents suggest and that this finding had valuable worth, the National Academy authors criticized prior researchers for publishing inconclusive findings. “Researchers should be discouraged,” the authors recommended, “from simply publishing the total number of kilograms of herbicide used per hectare per year because such data can mislead readers.” The authors did not suggest how researchers should determine whether the claims of the product (which includes reducing the amount of herbicide) should be investigated.

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For those readers who felt that the country’s flagship science academy would be able to drill down and find conclusive evidence as to whether GE technology contributes to health problems like cancer, diabetes, food allergies or obesity, they will be disappointed. The authors note at outset of this topic that “there are limits to what can be known of the health effects of any food.” This is a significant divergence from the position that the GE industry has taken, which tries to point to the lack of a verifiable link between rising cancer rates and two decades of GMO production.

But apart from this caveat, the report appears to be more focused on reassuring readers against the ill effects of GE technology than asking probing questions that have, so far, not been asked about the nation’s health status.

And that is perhaps because delving beyond already published findings isn’t the point of this report. The authors open by stating that they are following a standard research methodology that takes into account what was already published and experienced. Their job isn’t to ask probing questions that haven’t been asked, but to interview, compile, interpret and summarize for readers what has been already published.

That said, there’s a benefit to the even-handed approach when it comes to controversial topics like this. It helps to remind both investigators and readers that there is always at least two sides to every story. And oftentimes, even when we don’t expect it, there are two different results to a lab test. A summary suggesting that previous studies haven’t found conclusive evidence that HR technology is harmful doesn’t prove that it isn’t. It just means that studies on GMO foods aren’t conclusive, and the global scientific community has an opportunity — and an obligation — to prove that the technology is safe.

Image credits: 1) Flickr/Cliff; 2) Flickr/Orin Hargraves

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Jan Lee

Jan Lee is a former news editor and award-winning editorial writer whose non-fiction and fiction have been published in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, the U.K. and Australia. Her articles and posts can be found on TriplePundit, JustMeans, and her blog, The Multicultural Jew, as well as other publications. She currently splits her residence between the city of Vancouver, British Columbia and the rural farmlands of Idaho.

One response

  1. Read Steve Druker’s book…”Altered Genes, Twisted Truth…..”. Praised by scientists and other responsible people (who actually read the book, unlike the paid industry trolls who will reply to my post with lies and misinformation)…this book is a thoroughly researched investigation into how GMOs have been foisted on the public through probably the largest fraud ever perpetrated on the U.S. public. It’s an excellent book. If you want the truth about this issue…read it.

    In her foreword, Jane Goodall hails it as “without doubt one of the most important books of the last 50 years”; and several other scientists have also attested its importance and its soundness. For instance:

    David Schubert, a Professor and Head of Cellular Neurobiology at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, has praised it as “incisive, insightful, and truly outstanding” – and noted that it’s “well-rea­soned and scientifically solid.”

    Joseph Cummins, Professor Emeritus of Genetics at Western University in London, Ontario, has called it “a landmark” that should be required reading in every university biology course.

    John Ikerd, Professor Emeritus of Agricultural and Applied Economics at the University of Missouri, has called it a “great book” and stated: “The evidence is comprehensive and irrefutable; the reasoning is clear and compelling. No one has documented other cases of irresponsible behavior by government regulators and the scientific establishment nearly as well as Druker documents this one. His book should be widely read and thoroughly heeded.”

    Philip Regal, Professor Emeritus of Biology at the University of Minnesota, has commended it as exceptionally well-researched and well-written” and declared: “I am very impressed with the book as a whole – and expect that a large number of other scientists will be too.”
    The biochemist Stephen Naylor, who during his ten years as a professor at the Mayo Clinic extensively investigated the epidemic caused by the toxic GE tryptophan supplement, has described the book’s discussion of that tragic event as “the most comprehensive, evenly-balanced and accurate account that I have read.”

    Belinda Martineau, a molecular biologist who was a co-developer of the Flavr Savr™ tomato, has described the book as “thorough, logical and thought-provoking” and declared that she “strongly” recommends it.

    In all, the book demonstrates that:
    The genetic engineering process is inherently risky, and the foods it creates entail abnormal risks.
    The risks have been systematically misrepresented by the products’ proponents.
    The key misrepresentations have been made by eminent scientists and scientific institutions – and some of the most pivotal deceptions have been perpetrated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
    Besides deceiving the public about the risks of GE foods, the FDA allowed them to enter the US market in blatant violation of federal food safety law – and they continue to be on the market illegally.
    Not only is the GE food venture unsound from the perspective of biological science, it is unsound – and outright reckless – when examined in light of computer science; and compared to the careful manner in which software engineers revise life-critical information systems, the rash and radical way in which biotechnicians alter complex cellular information systems is not really “bioengineering” but biohacking.
    Even if GE crops didn’t entail excessive risks, they would still not be the solution for meeting the world’s prospective food needs, which is clear from a major study on the future of farming sponsored by four United Nations agencies and the World Bank that concluded they are not necessary[7]– and also from numerous studies in a variety of African nations demonstrating that safe and sustainable agroecological methods can outperform industrialized approaches (even when GMOs are employed).[8]

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