One way has been to compare how well a country achieves human needs, and at what ecological cost. WWF Global arrives at this by comparing two measures: the United Nation’s Human Development Index and the Ecological Footprint measure. To be sustainable, a country must first get a Human Development Index score of over 0.08 – a number the UN deems the lowest threshold for a high level of human development (i.e. meeting the needs of the present). The country must also have an ecological footprint of less than 1.8 hectares per person, the global average limit for not undermining the earth’s ability to regenerate (i.e. meeting the needs of the future).According to the calculations, in 2007, only one country in the world could be listed as sustainable and that was Peru. The country boasted a Human Development Index of 0.086 and an ecological footprint of 1.5 hectares. Cuba had been in that sustainability sweet spot the year before, but had just missed the ecological footprint cut-off. Ecuador and Colombia, as well, hovered on the edge of sustainability. Peru however is not without problems in spite of achieving this high sustainability status. Approximately 50% of Peru is covered with rainforests and most of these are protected from illegal logging. In spite of this, the country battles deforestation due to illegal squatting, road expansion, mining, and petroleum drilling. The country also struggles with wealth inequality but the country's Environmental Minister hopes to eliminate deforestation using international aid. The Prime Minister has also vowed to not allow environmental pollution, and the government demands environmental impact assessment for mining operations. Sustainability within the country therefore is a combination of high level of government involvement as well as concerted efforts by conservation organizations. The fact remains that as a country with abundant natural resources, sustainability is easier in Peru than anywhere else in the world. Worldwatch also mentions many diverse solutions from various other countries that world towards creating a sustainable future that balances out growth and development. They also stress the importance of community based projects and not just government intervention. Image Credit: Figure 1-2 from State of the World 2012. World Watch Institute.
Akhila is the Founding Director of GreenDen Consultancy which is dedicated to offering business analysis, reporting and marketing solutions powered by sustainability and social responsibility. Based in the US, Europe, and India, the GreenDen's consultants share the best practices and innovation from around the globe to achieve real results. She has previously written about CSR and ethical consumption for Justmeans and hopes to put a fresh spin on things for this column. As an IEMA certified CSR practitioner, she hopes to highlight a new way of doing business. She believes that consumers have the immense power to change 'business as usual' through their choices. She is a Graduate in Molecular Biology from the University of Glasgow, UK and in Environmental Management and Law. In her free-time she is a voracious reader and enjoys photography, yoga, travelling and the great outdoors. She can be contacted via Twitter @aksvi and also http://www.thegreenden.net
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